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Consequently, the six cannabis smokers who participated in Session 1 were invited to continue their participation in Sessions 2 and 3. Each of the 18 non-smoking subjects participated in only a single session. Written informed consent was obtained prior to study participation.
The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Medicine Institutional Review Board and conducted in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration. All subjects were compensated for their participation. A specially designed smoking chamber, made of plexi-glass walls with aluminum supports and measuring 10 ft. It was situated in a larger room that allowed direct observation of all parts of the chamber from three sides. The door to the exposure chamber was also constructed of plexi-glass and aluminum and was fitted with magnets that ran the entire perimeter to create a seal when closed.
The door remained closed during each session with two exceptions. Consequently, the door was opened briefly for exit and entry in those sessions. During each exposure session, six smokers and six non-smokers were seated in alternate seating positions around the table.
All participants donned disposable paper clothing including booties over their own clothing before entering the experimental chamber for each session. Smokers also wore disposable head coverings to prevent deposition of cannabinoids on their hair during the session. Non-smokers did not wear head coverings because deposition of cannabinoids on hair during naturalistic secondhand exposure might affect hair drug test results, a secondary study outcome.
All participants were supplied with goggles for use as needed for reduction of eye irritation from the smoke. During each session, participants remained in their assigned seats and played games, conversed, or engaged in other activities e.
Smokers were allowed to drink from bottles of water supplied at the start of the session. Non-smokers were not allowed to eat or drink during the session or after the session until after the first oral fluid specimen was collected.
As a safety measure, pulse oximeter readings were collected pre-session and at min intervals during each session to ensure that an adequate oxygen supply was maintained within the chamber. Cannabis for research purposes was obtained through the US federal drug supply program. Two types of Mississippi-grown cannabis with varying cannabinoid content were supplied for the study and were characterized and rolled into cigarettes by staff at Research Triangle Institute, International.
The higher potency cigarettes were hand-rolled and were 70 mm in length Three experimental cannabis sessions were conducted at weekly or greater intervals. Cannabis exposure sessions lasted 1 h, during which smokers consumed cannabis ad-libitum in the presence of non-smokers inside the closed chamber. The primary goal of these sessions was to conduct a pharmacokinetic evaluation of cannabinoids in biological fluids of non-smokers following extreme exposure to secondhand cannabis smoke.
Across the three experimental sessions, cannabis potency and room ventilation conditions were manipulated: Session 1 was conducted without air ventilation and cannabis cigarettes containing 5. Each smoker received a pre-weighed individual supply of cannabis cigarettes at the start of each session, and residues and unused portions were collected for weighing at session end. At the end of each 1-h cannabis exposure session, participants exited the room and immediately discarded their disposable clothing and washed their hands and face with soap and water.
After drying, they proceeded to a cannabis-free room investigative area for participation in specimen collections and behavioral and physiological assessments. Urine, whole blood and oral fluid specimens were collected prior to each session baseline and at timed intervals following each session.
Coincident with biological specimen collection, vital signs heart rate, blood pressure , subjective ratings of intoxication and measures of cognitive performance were also obtained. Hair specimens were collected before and after each session from non-smokers. A single pre-study baseline hair specimen was collected from each cannabis smoker and an additional hair specimen was after Session 1 or subsequent session for smokers who did not participate in all 3 sessions.
Experimental measures were obtained every 30 min for the first 2 h, hourly during hours 2—4 and every 2 h during hours 6—8. Smokers were discharged after the 8-h post-exposure time point. Non-smokers remained in the study under supervision over-night and biological specimens and pharmacodynamic measures were obtained through the h post exposure time point.
Assessments and outcomes, other than urine testing results, will be reported elsewhere. Following the end of each 1-h cannabis exposure period designated zero time , participants were asked to void at 0. Thereafter, urine specimens were pooled for each subject for the following time intervals: If multiple specimens were produced by an individual during a pool period, they were combined into an individual pool.
Each participant was asked to empty their bladder at the end of each pool period for inclusion in that period. No mixing of specimens between participants occurred. Because of the logistics involved in collecting multiple types of measures from 12 participants, the exact timing of early specimen collections was somewhat variable; consequently, all specimen times should be considered as nominal values i.
Urine specimens were collected in clean, plastic containers labeled with the participant's identification number, date and collection time.
Specimens to be pooled were transferred to a labeled plastic pooling vessel and kept refrigerated during the collection period. Bottle A specimens were thawed and aliquots were analyzed by immunoassay and gas chromatography—mass spectrometry GC—MS. Creatinine was determined with Siemens modified Jaffe reagent.
Specific gravity was determined with a Rudolph J57 refractometer. The column was eluted with 1. Criteria for acceptance of results included the following: Following analyses of Bottle A by CRL, Bottle B specimens were thawed for additional immunoassay determinations, aliquoted, and frozen aliquots were immediately shipped to three additional laboratories.
Bottle B aliquots were sent to selected laboratories with differing types of immunoassays. They were analyzed as follows laboratory, location, immunoassay type, cutoff concentrations: The sensitivity, specificity and agreement of the immunoassays for detection of cannabinoids in urine were calculated by comparison of the qualitative immunoassay response at different cutoff concentrations to the quantitative GC—MS result for THCCOOH.
Session 1, total of The mean range and median amount of cannabis consumed per smoker was as follows: Participants were supplied with goggles to wear during sessions to keep smoke from their eyes and reduce eye irritation. In Session 1, most participants elected not to wear the goggles initially, but then experienced substantial eye irritation.
As a result, some smokers reported that they stopped cannabis consumption to avoid adding more smoke to the room at a point where they would have otherwise continued to smoke.
Other smokers reported stopping cannabis use during Session 1 because they felt social pressure to do so because others had stopped smoking due to eye irritation. After Session 1, all participants both smokers and non-smokers utilized the goggles part-time or full-time and no longer had issues with eye irritation. The combined effect of these occurrences and possibly other factors was that total cannabis consumption in Session 1, at the lower THC potency, was less than in Sessions 2 and 3. There was considerable smoke generation in all sessions.
The photograph was taken approximately mid-way through the 60 min session. Smoke conditions were visibly less in Session 3, during which the ventilation system was in operation to simulate typical home air-conditioning conditions based on HVAC building standards.
Overall, observations from outside the smoking chamber were that there was considerable accumulation of smoke during Sessions 1 and 2 no ventilation , whereas the level of smoke during Session 3 active ventilation remained visible but greatly reduced in comparison to previous sessions.
Photograph from outside the exposure room approximately mid-way through Session 2 in which six cannabis smokers and six non-smokers participated in cannabis smoke studies. Using CBD hemp oils may influence dopamine levels in the bloodstream, providing users with increased relaxation and better sleep.
CBD oils are a plant-based way to restore emotional wellness, limit the side-effects of stress and bring you back to your best self. Shake well before use. Fill dropper to desired amount. Take up to times a day for weeks then times a day thereafter. It is a long established fact that a reader will be distracted by the readable content of a page when lookin.
Join us on Feb 21, for our next Canna Conversations. Where should you turn? Canna also has tinctures that have been customized for anxiety, inflammation, and sleep. Their product design is certainly nothing to write home about, but their prices are. This is one of the cheapest CBD oils that you can buy without sacrificing quality.
Domestically sourced, organic CBD isolate. Medterra scored high for transparency — every batch is third-party tested, and those lab reports are both easy to find and include information about in addition to cannabinoid levels. Customer service was great, answering questions fully and promptly.
Tincture concentrations range from mg — mg CBD. No flavor options actually, no flavor at all — this is a flavorless tincture.
None Shop Hemplucid For a newer company, Hemplucid has a lot to offer. They sell whole plant CBD grown organically in Colorado, and make a big deal about transparency — down to their clear bottles. Domestically sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil Price: Third party lab tests are performed for every batch of oil, and up-to-date third-party ab results are on the website.
The lab tests only show results for cannabinoid potency. Solid customer service — they answer their phones quickly an email response took a bit longer and give good, complete answers to product questions.
They provide both free shipping and a good return policy. Concentrations range from mg — mg. A family business, they take quality seriously and are trusted by many parents whose children benefit from their CBD oil. Organic, domestically sourced, full-spectrum CBD. They include results for cannabinoid potency as well as a whole range of other possible contaminants.
Customer service responses were fast and informative. The tincture comes in two sizes — 30 ml or ml. Both sizes contain the same concentration of 20 mg CBD per ml.
None Shop Pure Spectrum With a stated mission to revolutionize the phytocannabinoid industry, Pure Spectrum is aiming high. They offer reliably high-quality CBD oil extracted from organically farmed hemp at respectable prices. Pure Spectrum has each batch of CBD oil tested by a third-party lab, and those results are readily available on the website.
Timely customer service responses and a strong return policy. Their full spectrum tincture concentrations range from mg CBD in their 15 ml bottle up to mg in their 60 ml bottle. The Seattle-based company is committed to making CBD available to everyone, and their social conscience extends to discount programs for veterans and people with low incomes. Both full-spectrum and isolate-based CBD oil from organic, domestically-sourced hemp. Every batch of CBD oil is third-party tested, and you can find up-to-date lab results on their website Customer Service: Prompt customer service, but a more rigid return policy only 14 days to return a product.
For the full-spectrum CBD oil, you can choose your bottle size, but the concentration stays the same. Rave15 Green Gorilla Location: Their domestically sourced, organic products are mostly isolates, but they offer a full-spectrum option as well.
Organic, domestically sourced, CBD isolate. Green Gorilla has every batch of CBD oil third party tested, and lab results are easy to find.
Green Gorilla took a hit in the customer service category because we never got a response to email inquiries. They do answer their phones, though, and have good answers to question. Their return policy is relatively strict — they accept returns on unopened products within 14 days. Concentrations vary from mg in a 1 oz bottle up to mg in a 2 oz bottle. Flavor options are lemon or olive oil. They are an established, well-trusted Colorado-based company known for their quality CBD-dominant strain of hemp.
Domestically-sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil Price: Every batch is third-party tested, and if you want to see a lab test before you purchase, just email customer service. Customer service responses were a little slower — it took a couple days to get a response from an email inquiry. They sent a ton of information, though. Concentrations range from milligrams per bottle up to in their new Max. Organic, locally sourced, CBD isolate. Every batch is third party tested, and you can find test results in the product descriptions on the website.
It took a couple days to get responses to our inquiries, but answers were friendly and informative. Concentrations vary from mg mg per 30 ml bottle. Their product selection is limited, but devoted entirely to whole-plant extracts that give you the full entourage effect.
Organic, domestically sourced, CBD. Third party lab tests are available by request. The publicly available lab test is limited to cannabinoid potency. They do offer free shipping and you can return unopened products within 30 days of delivery. All tinctures have the same concentration of 50 mg CBD per ml. Your choice is limited to the size of the bottle. Organic, domestically sourced, full-spectrum CBD oil.
Moon Mother has each batch of CBD oil tested for potency by a third party. The website is generally pretty thin on information about testing and extraction. It took several days to get a response to our emailed inquiries, and there is no phone number listed on the website. We did eventually get good answers to our questions, though. For tinctures, you can choose between mg and mg CBD per ml. They also offer the flavor options of peppermint and cinnamon. None Shop Mana Artisan Botanics Working from a solid base of ethics and experience, Mana Artisan Botanics is a Hawaiian company committed to using pure, organic ingredients that are locally sourced whenever possible.
Each batch of their tincture is third-party tested, and those lab results are available on request rather than on the website.
The lab results we saw showed cannabinoid potency only. We heard back from emailed in customer service within 24 hours, and they answered all our questions. You can choose from three bottle sizes. The publicly available reports only cite cannabinoid potency, and we were unable to ascertain how often third-party testing takes place. We got emailed replies back very quickly.
On the other hand, we found their answers unsatisfying when it came to how often third-party lab testing is done. Their return policy allows you a refund for unopened product only, within 30 days. Tinctures come in concentrations of mg or mg per 15 ml bottle.
Rave18 Hemp Bombs Location: It gets the job done, though, and the company itself sells high-quality, organically farmed CBD at reasonable prices. Although Hemp Bombs originally sourced their hemp from Europe, the company has transitioned to domestically sourced hemp. Third-party lab reports are readily available on their website, and according to customer service, these are being performed every six months. The lab tests that we saw reported cannabinoid potency, as well as results for residual solvents and heavy metals.
We had no problems getting responses from customer service, and they answered all of our questions although there was some confusion about sourcing, which we later clarified with the company. Tincture concentrations range from mg to mg per bottle — all bottles are the same size. You can choose between peppermint and watermelon flavors.
There are new CBD companies coming online every week — these span the range from truly awful to really great. So how to choose the best? The quality of the CBD oil itself is obviously the most important factor — and many companies do take the quality of their products seriously. To reward those companies, we gave more weight to the quality of the product than any other category.
With so many companies to choose from, though, we had to further refine our list. So we looked at other factors to determine which companies are the best and the most trustworthy. So we scrutinized the transparency of the manufacturer, the customer experience, and the value for your dollar. Where the hemp was grown To determine the quality of the CBD oil, we started with the source — where the hemp was grown and whether it was grown organically.
Domestic sources allow for more oversight over farming practices, so companies that source their hemp in the U. Companies that source from farms that utilize organic practices got higher marks. Broad spectrum CBD oil includes a range of other cannabinoids, but minus the THC — which is generally what people using isolates are trying to avoid. We gave the highest points to companies that use a CBD distillate for their tinctures. The process of distillation creates an extract that is pure on a molecular level.
There are people who think distillate is too pure, and that a full spectrum decarb produces a more effective tincture. But in light of the inconclusive evidence, we prefer a distillate. The process allows for a high degree of control as to the finished product. Flavor Which segues neatly into our final quality marker — namely, taste.
True, taste is subjective. But there are companies putting a lot of resources into making their tinctures palatable. And then there are tinctures that just taste plain bad. For this category, we put a lot of weight on how they deal with third-party lab testing.
First, we rated them on how easy it is to find those lab test results — as well as how much they tested for. All lab tests should test cannabinoid levels, but we really appreciate companies that also let us see testing results for contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and residual solvents. We then asked how often they have third-party testing performed top marks for those who send every batch to a third-party lab.
And we gave points to companies who make it really easy to find information on extraction and sourcing. So we posed as customers and went through the whole shopping experience. This included everything from navigating the website and sending out customer service emails to going through the checkout process — as well as noting shipping and returns policies.
We also gave a few points based on the design and appearance of both their website and bottle. The score, out of , breaks down to 70 percent for price and 30 percent for quality. This brings some balance to the list since, for most of us, cost definitely matters. They are all selling high-quality products, with third-party lab tests to back them up. We went with the best evidence available for example, in privileging full-spectrum oils over isolates.
But otherwise — where evidence is inconclusive, we made decisions based on our own experience and preference. And there are some new additions! In short, Cannabidiol — or CBD — is a cannabis compound that has many therapeutic benefits.
Usually extracted from the leaves and flowers of hemp plants — though marijuana can also be a source — CBD oil is then incorporated into an array of marketable products.
These products vary from the most common, like sublingual oils and topical lotions, to the less common think CBD lattes. Basically, if you can dream it, you can buy it. How does CBD Work? The endocannabinoid system is spread throughout your brain and body, but primarily throughout your central nervous system. The interaction between cannabinoids and receptors is what produces effects like the regulation of mood, pain, appetite, inflammation, and memory.
Plant-based cannabinoids, found in cannabis plants, also interact with the receptors whimsically named CB1 and CB2 in the endocannabinoid system, and each affects your body in different ways.
But CBD is a special snowflake among cannabinoids. This unique interaction creates systemic, whole-body benefits that include, but are by no means limited to: CBD is a non-psychoactive component of the cannabis plant. So, no, it will not make you high. There are at least different cannabinoids that can be isolated from cannabis plants, each of which has its own effects. THC or tetrahydrocannabinol is the only cannabinoid responsible for the high that people get from marijuana.
This property makes CBD highly useful as a medical treatment for a wide range of conditions. Each cannabinoid has its own properties and confers its own benefits. Working together, a synergy is created that boosts the healing properties of CBD. The government regulates concentration levels of THC at 0. But THC metabolites are stored in the fat cells of your body, building up over time. If you ever need to take a drug test, this could create an issue for you.
CBD Isolate is just that — CBD that has been isolated and then refined to remove all other terpenes, cannabinoids, and plant material. This process eliminates the trace amounts of THC that would otherwise be present. The result is a fine white powder containing only the pure CBD chemical compound. This isolate is then combined with carrier oils like hemp seed oil or MCT oil to create marketable products.
While those in the These terpenes may enhance the effectiveness of CBD — or maybe they just make it smell good. This may be a good place to point out that not all CBD products are created equal. The industry is still largely unregulated, and the quality and quantity of CBD in a given product will vary wildly. Another point worth clarifying is the difference between hemp seed oil or hemp oil and CBD oil.
However, hemp seed oil does not contain any concentration of cannabinoids at all, including CBD. So by all means, stock up at your local natural food store. And now, onto the thorny issue of legality.
The simple answer to the question is yes — if it is extracted from hemp. The Farm Bill established guidelines for growing hemp in the U. CBD derived from marijuana is a different story, and the law varies from state to state. And what research supports these claims? The science behind CBD is in the relatively early stages.
As a cannabinoid, we know that CBD interacts with receptors in your endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is integrated throughout your body — and this widespread, whole-body interaction creates a broad range of effects. Hence, the long list of possible benefits. But those who deal with chronic pain know the debilitating, life-sucking reality of this condition.
And traditional medications often come with long lists of side effects which can be as debilitating as the pain itself. So when word started getting out that CBD has the potential to reduce pain without those side effects, it seemed too good to be true. In fact, numerous studies have looked at the relationship between CBD and pain, and the results are promising. Researchers have looked at various kinds of pain — from joint pain to cancer pain.
One finding is that CBD increases levels of glutamate and serotonin — both neurotransmitters that play a role in pain regulation. Both conditions have been treated with a variety of medications, courtesy of Big Pharma, that have had varying levels of success.
Again, the long list of side effects can be off-putting to someone who just wants to get through the day without the sweaty tension of anxiety or the gray haze of depression. Another study showed CBD to have antidepressant effects comparable to those of the prescription antidepressant Imipramine.
These studies point to the need for more research to be done on CBD. But for those who have had limited success with prescribed medications, talking with your doctor about using CBD as an alternative is worth consideration.
CBD and Insomnia Sleep, the sweet elixir of the gods. So natural, but for many of us, so sadly elusive. We exercise, we avoid things that we really, really want — like naps and caffeine.
And still, the magic escapes us. But help is near. CBD, with its calming, anti-anxiety effects, is helping many people get the sleep they need — without the groggy side effects of many sleeping pills. There are lots of things that can keep a person awake — from anxiety or depression to chronic pain. CBD and Seizures In the United States, over three million people suffer from epilepsy — , of those people are children.
Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain that causes seizures — of which there are over thirty different kinds, ranging from mild and infrequent to life-threatening. Not surprisingly, people with epilepsy face significant challenges — from the cost of healthcare to work limitations and social isolation.
And treatment proves difficult for many people. In fact, over one-third of people with epilepsy live with uncontrollable seizures because there is no available treatment that works for them. So when CBD started gaining mainstream attention for stopping or greatly reducing seizures, people started to get very excited. And with good reason. Evidence from laboratory studies, small clinical studies, and anecdotal reports over a number of years suggest that CBD helps control seizures.
And in June of , a major advance was made when the FDA approved a prescription cannabidiol medicine — Epidiolex — to treat rare and severe forms of epilepsy. This means that people with these rare and devastating forms of epilepsy will have access to CBD that has been clinically tested and dosed. This is a hugely beneficial effect of CBD. Free radicals are the culprits when it comes to oxidative damage and inflammation. These elements include pervasive, but hugely unsurprising, things like: A cannabinoid extracted from the hemp or marijuana plant, CBD has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety effects — among many other benefits.
But the world of CBD oil can be a confusing place even if you have a pretty clear idea of what you want it to do for you. The goal, of course, is to get the right amount of CBD into your body in the most efficient way.
But how do you know what the right amount is? Factors like your specific product, your genetic makeup, and the condition you want to treat will all play a part in the dose you take. To help get you started in finding your own perfect dose, here are some general principles to use as a guide: This lack of a predictable response makes standard dosing tricky. You can expect to do a certain amount of experimentation before you find that optimal dose. What is the concentration of CBD?
Are there third-party lab tests that can confirm that? The CBD industry is still mainly a grassroots therapeutic movement, and as such, largely unregulated. Concentration and purity levels can differ greatly depending on the manufacturing process. What you need to find is your own minimum effective dose. Taking more CBD than you need can result in unwanted side effects, and it will certainly result in your spending more money than you need to.
But when it comes to CBD, more is not necessarily better. In fact, for many, less CBD is more effective. This refers to an incremental process of finding your minimum effective dose. You can do this with any concentration of CBD oil, but lower concentrations will take longer. In a article in Rolling Stone, Dr. Dustan Sulak outlines his protocol for microdosing. You can begin this process by asking yourself three questions: How easy is it to breathe? How comfortable and calm does your body feel?
How easy is it for you to smile authentically, to feel content and grateful? You then take your first drop of CBD oil, wait 45 minutes, then ask the questions again. That is your minimum effective dose. Before you begin taking CBD, you might want to spend some time thinking, as specifically as possible, about what you want it to do for you.
Also consider what results you need to see to make the expenditure worthwhile. Then take your time, and pay close attention to your body in order to give your experiment the best chance of success. This will help you avoid any potential drug interactions or an unwanted decrease in the effectiveness of your other medications. She can advise you on possible drug interactions and any reasons that CBD might not be a good choice for you personally. She has a background in education and a longstanding addiction to 19th-century literature and very strong tea.
Many are finding that cannabidiol CBD is an effective and gentle solution for ailments from anxiety to pain and depression. That is why we have broken down for you exactly what you need to know about each oil so you can weigh your options and make an educated decision. Ready to Feel Better? Browse the list of the top-rated oils below and take some time to find the right product to help your specific symptoms. Also consider how the color, clarity, and purity of cannabidiol oil affect you.
Tinctures were very a very common way to ingest botanical oils prior to the industrial revolution and are experiencing a resurgence in popularity as more people are looking for natural remedies. Tinctures with droppers allow you to put a few drops in your tea, under your tongue, or to bake the oil directly into your food. This allows for easy use to treat problem areas. Many senior citizens use topicals for arthritis or other auto-immune disorders however because of restrictions imposed by various agencies we are not allowed to say whether this is an effective treatment or now.
However, a quick Google search will help you find what you are looking for in terms of effectiveness. These patches allowed for a slow release of nicotine over the course of a day?
Well, the same idea exists with CBD patches. This is a convenient way to get CBD into your body and endocannabinoid system over the course of a day. This allows for reduced risk of paranoia while allowing for a high medicinal dose of CBD. Vaporizers are used to heat up the flower and remove the properties or compounds of the plant that you are looking for without combustion or smoking. Vaporizers use convection much like a convection oven. A vape pen is about the size of an ink pen but has a CBD oil cartridge with a heating element.
Many people like vape pens because there is very little in the way of odor after using it and it allows for a lot of discretion because it can be pulled out of your pocket and used on demand. Be on the lookout for infused foods, snacks and drinks soon. CBD stands for cannabidiol. CBD one of many cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant.
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